The new church took the middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.

The new church took the middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.

The old nobility, deprived of privileges, could not adapt to the new relationship. The “price revolution” reduced the cost of rent. Due to the liquidation of the monasteries, they lost the role of abbot.

The social support of the Tudors was the new small and medium nobility. It used hired labor. The estates were connected with the market.

The second pillar was the urban bourgeoisie – manufacturing and trade. The union of the royal power with the new classes enabled the Tudor dynasty to use the English parliament as a political support and it did not lose its significance. With the support of parliament, Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) carried out the royal reformation and secularization of church and monastery property.

Features of English absolutism: parliament, the preservation of local government in the counties, the absence of a standing army. This is due to the insularity of England. But the fleet was also strong. (And, in general, is it absolutism? Or the concept of “attracted by the ear”?)

Under Henry VIII, the Reformation began in England. The reason was the interest of the nobility in the secularization of church lands and the desire of the bourgeoisie to make the church simple and cheap. The reason was the pope’s refusal to allow Henry VIII to divorce Catherine of Aragon, aunt of Charles V. The divorce was formalized by Parliament and Henry VIII married Anna Boleyn, a maid of honor.

In 1534, Henry VIII issued an act declaring himself head of the church, but the rites remained intact. The bishops remained. The new church took the middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. In 1536 and 1539 the monasteries were closed and their property confiscated. But the treasury did not keep the confiscated lands. They were distributed, sold, given to favorites.

Under Edward I, the Church of England approached Protestantism, but in 1553, during the reign of Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, a Catholic reaction began in support of Spain. The persecution of Protestants began, but the property was not returned to the monasteries.

Elizabeth (1558 – 1603) – daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn restored moderate Protestantism in Anglican form. The queen appointed bishops to sit in the House of Lords.

In 1571 an Anglican symbol of faith was developed from 33 articles. There was also a Calvinist dogma about justification by faith and about scripture as the only source of faith. But the saving power of the church was also acknowledged. The service was in English.

Strict laws were issued against Catholics. Jesuits were forbidden to appear in England. The church became national and became a resistance to absolutism. The clergy obeyed the king.

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth Tudor, the economic life of England developed intensively. The Tudors supported trade, provided benefits, and imposed import duties. The bourgeoisie and the nobility supported the Tudors. During Elizabeth’s time, England consolidated its position as a maritime power and embarked on a path of colonial rule. The queen restored Protestantism, suppressed an uprising in defense of the “true faith” in 1569, and waged war against Spain.

English Catholics wanted to enthrone Henry VII’s great-granddaughter, Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland. As the Calvinist Reformation movement intensified in Scotland, Mary was forced to seek refuge in England with Elizabeth, who secretly funded Scottish Calvinists.

In 1570, the pope issued a bull on the overthrow of Elizabeth as a heretic and excommunicated her from the church. This provoked a conspiracy of Catholics. Participants reconnected with Philip II, with whom Mary Stewart had secret correspondence. Elizabeth’s government exposed the conspiracy. The court sentenced Maria severely and in 1587 she was executed.

The Pope called on Catholics to go to war with England, and Philip II sent an “Invincible Armada” (134 ships, 20,000 soldiers, 3,000 guns). A fleet of 200 ships was created in England under the command of the former corsair Drake. The armada did not reach Dunkirk, it was scattered and destroyed by a storm, and the remnants were defeated by Drake.

In the 60’s of the XVI century. in England began to show signs of stagnation in trade. At sea, Spain remained strong.

In the 70’s in the trade and colonial expansion of England came a turning point. England began to organize expeditions to distant lands. Joint-stock campaigns were created. Gold and ivory began to be imported from Africa. From 1562 the slave trade began. The Moscow Company, the Levantine Company, and a company for trade on the Baltic coast were established. In 1580, the English merchants received a surrender – the right to trade, paying a duty of 5% on Turkish possessions.

Queen Elizabeth invested £ 40,000 in the Levantine Company. Art. and received an income of 300%. Then another 10 thousand on terms of 500% of annual profits.

With the development of trade in the sixteenth century. increased demand for wool, bread. The British were attracted to the emerald island (Ireland). As early as 1541, Henry VIII accepted the title of King of Ireland. They tried to force the Reformation here. The English kings tried to quarrel with the nobility. During the suppression of the Ulster uprising, the Elizabeth government seized large tracts of land and distributed them to English nobles. The Irish became small tenants. Ireland actually became a colony.

In the sixteenth century. established relations with Russia. Britain and Russia saw it as a place to sell goods, but since the 1970s Ivan the Terrible has curtailed the privileges of English merchants.

In 1600 the East India Company was organized. She was assisted by the queen, receiving part of the profits.

Opposition to absolutism emerged at the end of Elizabeth’s reign. Parliament demanded a relentless struggle against the Catholic reaction, immunity and freedom of speech for deputies. Parliament opposed the distribution of patents by the queen to the nobility for trade in various goods.

The oppositional sentiments of the bourgeoisie took the ecclesiastical-religious form of Puritanism. The Puritans broke with the Church of England. It had two directions – Presbyterian (big bourgeoisie and nobility) and Independent (petty bourgeoisie, peasantry). Elizabeth’s government persecuted the Puritans. But their number was growing.

Culture. The center of humanism was Oxford. The humanists Grosin, Linnacre and John Colette were supporters of ancient literature, promoted the Greek language. They influenced Thomas More.

John Colette (1467 – 1519) – the son of a merchant and mayor of London, studied in France and Italy, knew ancient literature, works of humanists. He was against scholastic teaching methods and corporal punishment.

Thomas More is Chancellor of Henry VIII. The book about the island of Utopia is a critique of fencing and condemnation of private property. On Fr. Utopia is the opposite. Chains for criminals are made of gold. But there were slaves for mining. Thomas Moore was executed for speaking out against the Reformation in 1535. In clerical historiography he is considered a martyr, although in fact he was religiously tolerant.

The second half of the sixteenth century. – The era of Elizabeth, the rise of the English Renaissance. W. Shakespeare founded the Globe Theater (without a roof) for 2,000 spectators.

Francis Bacon (philosopher) is the author of The New Organ.

Christopher Marlowe (playwright) created Tamerlane’s Faust and The Paris Massacre. The development of drama was continued by Ben Johnson.

literature

The relationship between social relations and ideology in medieval Europe. – M., 1983. World history. – M., 1957. The ruling class of feudal Europe. – Moscow, 1989. Gutnova EV Class struggle and social consciousness of the peasantry in medieval Western Europe (XI-XV centuries). – M., 1984. Europe in the Middle Ages: economics, politics, culture / Sb. articles to the 80th anniversary of Academician Skazkin SD – M., 1972. Ideological and political struggle in medieval society. – M., 1984. History of the peasantry in Europe. The era of feudalism. In 3 volumes. – Volumes I-II. – M., 1985, 1986. Classes and estates of medieval society / Ed. Udaltsova. – M., 1988. Problems of development of feudal ownership of land. – M., 1979 Samarkin VV Historical geography of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. – M., 1976. Feudal rent and peasant movements in Western Europe XIII-XV centuries. – M., 1985. History of the Middle Ages / Ed. SP Karpov. – M., 2000. – Vol. 1. History of the Middle Ages / Ed. SP Karpov. – M., 2000. – T. 2. Vlas and political culture in medieval Europe. – M., 1992. European nobility of the XVI – XVII centuries: the boundaries of the class. – Moscow, 1997. Medieval Europe through the eyes of contemporaries and historians: A book to read in six parts. – M., 1994. – Part IV – V. History of the Middle Ages. Europe. – Minsk, 2000. Cardini F. The origins of medieval chivalry. – M., 2000. Political structures of the era of feudalism in Western Europe (VI – XVII centuries.). – Leningrad, 1990. World culture. The Middle Ages. – M.: Altea, 1996. Kontamin F. War in the sulfur centuries. – SP (b): Juventa, 2001.

10/12/2012

The emergence of the Palestinian problem. Abstract

The establishment of a British mandate over Palestine created favorable opportunities for intensifying Jewish immigration to the Middle East

The first High Commissioner in Palestine was Herbert Samuel, who stood out for his Jewish sentiments during World War II. Under his protection, Jews and Zionist-friendly individuals were given almost all the top positions in the colonial administration. During his tenure, the Jewish population of Palestine doubled, reaching 121,725 ​​in January 1925.

During Samuel’s reign, there were constant conflicts between local Arabs and Jews. The Arab-Jewish confrontation began with an Arab attack on Jewish immigrants in the port of Jaffa in May 1921. Rumors began to spread among the Arab population that Britain was going to turn Palestine into a completely Jewish territory. In order to reassure the Arab population of Palestine in June 1922, Colony Minister Winston Churchill issued a memorandum explaining the British government’s position on the future of Palestine, noting, in particular, that the creation of a Jewish state was not a question of “but the intensity of further Jewish emigration. ” economic capacity of the country “.

Meanwhile, the Jews in Palestine began to create a system of political and economic institutions – the basis of the future political and economic infrastructure of the state, created a number of political parties, mutual aid societies, Jewish self-defense units “Haganah”. Histadrut, the general federation https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ of Palestinian workers, which now numbers 1.5 million, became a supra-party organization of Palestinian Jews.