In general, language appears as a formal principle of structuring the unconscious, as its code.

In general, language appears as a formal principle of structuring the unconscious, as its code.

Modern theologians consider all the achievements of spiritual culture as derived from religion, and the cultural development of mankind is interpreted as a process of finding the divine first principle. Catholic culturology is based on the principle that culture is the result of divine revelation, and the stages of cultural progress of mankind are the approach to the knowledge of the wisdom and will of God. The French philosopher (1882-1973) Jacques Maritain and the Catholic sociologist E. Winter made a significant contribution to substantiating this understanding of culture. Paul Tillich’s Protestant culturology is similar (1886-1965), but his religion and culture oppose each other. The task of theology, according to the Protestant theologian, is to restore the synthesis of religion and culture, which will be able to provide answers to the acute problems of human existence.

In Orthodox culturology, the idea of ​​the unity of religion and culture is also substantiated. The Ukrainian-Russian philosopher Mykola Berdyaev (1874 – 1948) argued that the meaning of history is liberation from objectification. Achieving this is possible only through the end of history and the transition to a world of free spirit, which is identified with the kingdom of God. He denies understanding progress as a linear and steady progressive movement of society.

MO Berdyaev, VV Rozanov and PA Florensky believed that culture was born from a religious cult, and religious cult determines the aesthetic orientation and educational role of spiritual values.

9. In structuralist concepts of culture, the main focus is on the study of invariant relations (structures) in the dynamics of different cultural systems. The emergence of structuralism in anthropology occurred in the 50’s and 60’s Art. Methods of system-semiotic analysis borrowed from the arsenal of structural linguistics are used in structuralist concepts. Fundamental for them are the idea of ​​culture as a set of sign systems and cultural texts, the existence of universal invariant mental structures that determine the mechanisms of human response to environmental influences, the possibility of studying different cultures through comparative analysis and scientific knowledge of sign systems of culture. It should be noted that structuralism was formed as the antithesis of the subjectivist philosophy of existentialism. There are three stages in the development of humanitarian structuralism:

formation of the method in structural linguistics (works of F. de Saussure (1857 – 1913); philosophical structuralism, which is traditionally identified with the work of French anthropologist C. Levi-Strauss (1908-1990), French philosopher and cultural theorist Michel -Paul) Foucault (1926-1984), Estonian scholar Yuri Lotman (1922-1993), poststructuralism, represented by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida (b. 1930) and Jacques Lacan (1901-1981), a French literary critic Roland Barthes ( 1915-1980), Italian culturologist and historian Umberto Eco (b. 1932), Julia Kristeva (b. 1941) and niches.

The French philosopher and leader of structuralism C. Levi-Strauss (1908 – 1990) in the works "Elementary structures of blood relationship (1949)," Structural Anthropology "(1958)," Thinking of a savage "(1962) was based on the thesis of the unity of human nature, the presence in it of a structurally organized basis of the unconscious.He believed that social structures could be explored through the study of myths and rituals.

With the help of myth is the settlement of social contradictions in order to overcome them. The myth cannot be grasped on the basis of ordinary rationalism. K. Levi-Strauss characterizes his analysis as a "myth of mythology." Mythological thinking, in his opinion, operates with binary oppositions (day – night, earth – sky and so on), and is logical. He believed that the fundamental mental structures are never realized or changed in history, but they are best preserved in the primitive tribes. The philosopher considered the structure of thinking of primitive man to be identical to that which is inherent in modern man.

The subject of J. Lacan’s research (1901-1981) is not social organizations or spiritual structures of primitive tribes, but deep subconscious structures of the individual’s psyche and their expression in language as a symbolic system. Substantiating the cultural conditioning of the subconscious, he builds an interesting concept of desexualization of mental energy (libido). In place of the mental structure proposed by S. Freud ("It" – "I" – "Super-I") J. Lacan puts a three-member scheme "real – imaginary – symbolic", the main component of which is the interaction of imaginary and symbolic. The symbolic is personified by the figure of the Other, or the Father. With its help the orderliness of culture is mastered.

Thus, man in J. Lacan is a crossroads of symbolic structures, a cavity filled with cultural content.

Language is the basic concept of J. Lacan’s concept, but it is not identical with either natural language or Freud’s symbolic language of words. In general, language appears as a formal principle of structuring the unconscious, as its code.

Poststructuralism is a collective designation of several directions in socio-humanitarian cognition since the 1970s and 1980s, which are focused on rethinking the structuralist paradigm. They do not have a clearly defined common research program, but seek to legitimize the revision of many classical notions of structuralism and focus on critiques of Western European metaphysics with its logocentrism, the establishment of true knowledge, and the discovery of order in the real world …

One way or another, poststructuralist concepts are aimed at understanding the "unstructured" in the structures, to identify aporia and paradoxes that arise in the study of society and culture through language structures. According to the representatives of poststructuralism, cultural artifacts, cases, gestures, freedom, power and power relations go beyond the structures. The main force on which all manifestations of individual and social life depend is desire. Desire is the ultimate reality that defines everything unstructured in the structure.

The main attention is paid to the texts of culture, because for poststructuralists reality is a textualized world. But the text has no structure. Interpretation of cultural texts in this approach is a procedure for giving it meaning. The objectivity of the research, the method and the topics for personal narratives scientificity are of no particular importance and are not put forward as the purpose of "reading the text". The absence of a limit value of the text and the rejection of the concept of reference of sign and meaning, ie a clear and unambiguous connection between a certain sign and its semantic meaning, open unlimited space for the formation of new meanings of culture. Artifacts of culture are interpreted as metaphors that acquire meaning in the game of shifted meanings.

10. Ukrainian culturological thought is closely connected with the general development of knowledge about culture. It was formed under the influence of well-known Western European culturological concepts and on the basis of original ideas. Ukrainian scholars have created a number of original concepts of culture, the main thesis of which was the self-worth of national culture and its relationship with the cultures of other nations.

In general, Ukrainian culturological science was born as a history of culture. Here were marked by unfavorable socio-political conditions, which required the struggle for national independence and the preservation of the main factors of self-awareness of the nation: language, literature, history, ethnography and more. One of its most characteristic features was democracy and humanistic orientation, faith in the historical future of the Ukrainian people. A natural consequence of the development of Ukrainian thought in the XVI – XVIII centuries. became a kind of philosophical concept of Hryhoriy Savych Skovoroda (1722 – 1794).

Fundamental to it is the doctrine of two natures and three worlds, and the most important problem – the problem of human happiness. The world, according to G. Skovoroda, consists of two natures – visible and invisible, the creature and its God. He distinguishes three types of being, or worlds – large (macrocosm), small (microcosm) and symbolic – the Bible. The world of culture, the focus of which is the Bible, as a point in which the whole ethical philosophy of mankind is gathered – a separate world, which reflects both man (microcosm) and Nature – God.

Human self-knowledge makes it possible to know the invisible nature – God. Deciphering biblical symbolism directs it to the correct search for truth and goodness. The philosopher was convinced that the spiritual rebirth of people, the implementation of related work will automatically lead to the harmonious functioning of society. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian science, GS Skovoroda laid the foundations for understanding culture as a separate, specific sphere of existence in which everything divine is in symbolic forms.

Some historians call the year 1798 a landmark in the history of the revival of Ukrainian culture, when Ivan Petrovich Kotlyarevsky’s Aeneid (1769-1938) was published, which completed the previous evolution of national life in Ukraine and became a starting point for further strengthening the spirit of democracy and humanity.

The works of Taras Shevchenko, Mykhailo Drahomanov, Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainka, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky reflect the deep penetration into the Ukrainian soul and formulate the main features of the mentality of Ukrainians, in particular – the desire for freedom, democracy, poetry , tolerance, openness, zest for life. The ideas of romanticism and nationality, refracted from the point of view of the needs of the Ukrainian national self-consciousness, became the source in the works of P. Hulak – Artemovsky and G. Kvitka – Osnovyanenko.

Professor of the University of Kyiv and one of the leaders of the secret organization "Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood" M. Kostomarov made a significant contribution to the development of Ukrainian science and culture. During his life he wrote about 200 scientific papers on history. Among his works: "Ruin", "Bogdan Khmelnytsky", "Mazepa", 16-volume edition "Monographs and Studies", "Book of the Existence of the Ukrainian people". He believed that for historical analysis, the starting point should not be the state itself, but the implementation of man in a particular community. When studying history, we must first study the history of the people, working villages and cities, their spiritual life, which is crucial in the historical process.

The development of Ukrainian anthropology was initiated by M.